The capital of Kyiv, occupied Crimea, was bombed by Chernihiv and Kharkov, fortifying Odessa and Lviv, from which hundreds of thousands of refugees had fled. There are monuments everywhere and elsewhere in Ukraine that cross value lines. They are extraordinary in age, rich history, beauty and architectural originality. That’s why they have earned a UNESCO list or are trying to do so. Most of them are located in the west of the country, in the Crimea and in Kiev. And you can trace a significant Czech trail between them.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra and St. Cathedral. Sophia
Arriving in Kiev and not seeing the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra is like visiting Paris and missing the Eiffel Tower. This monastery, as well as St. Sophia – both with a thousand year history – became a city landmark thanks to the gilded Baroque dance. The Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, today the head seat of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, was an important cultural center in the Middle Ages. St. Cathedral Sophia, now a museum, has 19 towers, and before the Baroque reconstruction, even had 30 towers.
In Kiev, there are two more candidates for registration at UNESCO – the Church of St. Andrew and the convent with St. Andrew’s Church. Cyril.
Ruins of the ancient city of Chersonésos
Thanks to its strategic location, the Crimean peninsula has a colorful history dating back to ancient times. The ancient Greeks called her Taurica, and as a colony they founded the city of Chersonésos, the remains of which can be seen in Sevastopol. Between the 5th century BC and the 14th century AD, it was an important center of the northern Black Sea. It withstood the onslaught of invaders, survived Roman or Janovan domination, until it was finally destroyed by the forces of the Golden Horde Empire.
University complex in ernovice
Josef Hlávka was an important Czech builder, architect, politician and patron of the 19th century. The foundation he founded is still functioning today, its name bears the Prague Bridge. In Prague he designed the maternity hospital in Apolinář, in Vienna he built an opera. However, his most important work is the original residential area of the Bukovina and Dalmatian metropolitans in Chernivtsi, Ukraine, which is now the seat of the University of Chernivtsi.
Lviv Center and St. Cathedral George
Founded in the Middle Ages, Western Ukraine’s Lviv was an important center for several centuries. Its medieval structure has been well preserved, enriched by buildings from later times. Apart from the remains of Vysoky Castle, the 14th-century Armenian Cathedral, the medieval church of St. Paraskeva or former Bernardine monastery with the church of St. Andrew is noteworthy. On the hill southwest of the center, the protected complex is complemented by the Baroque complex of St. George.
Carpathian wooden church
The Carpathian region on the border of Ukraine and Poland is decorated in many places with historic Orthodox churches made of wood, called churches. A total of 16 of them are on the UNESCO list, half of which are in Ukraine. The floor plans and towers correspond to the Eastern liturgy, differ by region and are divided into several types. Everything is made of wood, the roof and walls are mostly covered with shingles. Some have bell towers or separate fences with gates.
Rock castles and cave cities in Crimea
In the interior of Crimea, there are three stone castles connected by a cave complex, which may date back to the fifth to sixth centuries. Two, Mangup and Eski Kermen, were originally the seat of the Ostrogoths. The third, Chufut-Kale, was probably the work of the Alan Sarmatian tribe and later became the center of the Jewish Karaites.
Millennium temple in Chernihiv
There are two Orthodox temples in Ditinsky Park in the center of Chernihiv – the Borisogleb Cathedral and the Cathedral of the Transfiguration. The park is situated on the site of a settlement from the seventh to eighth centuries. The three-part Cathedral of the Transfiguration is one of the oldest surviving stone structures in Ukraine – construction began in 1030. Boris and Gleb Cathedral has a history dating back to the early 12th century, its present day appearance is the result of several reconstructions, including after the bombing in 1941.
Genoa Castle on the shores of the Black Sea
In the early Middle Ages, Genoa, Italy, developed into a nation that controlled a number of islands and coastal areas of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, thanks to large merchant naval fleets and crusades. These include the Crimean peninsula, on its coast, after the Janovans, several castles remained – a fortified shopping center from the 13th-15th centuries. century. The largest is the Sudak Fort, most of the surviving buildings date back to the Genoese period, but were built by the Byzantines in the sixth to seventh centuries.
Bilhorod-Dnistr Fortress and ruins of Tyras
The Greek city of Tyrás, a colony of Miletus, probably stood on a rocky promontory at the mouth of the Dniester River to the Black Sea from 600 BC. In the first century AD, it was ravaged by the Dacians, and since then a number of countries have changed in its territory. In its ruins, some of which are still visible, stands the castle, which historians most often attribute to the Janovans and date to the 13th or 14th century. The fort which has 34 towers was later ruled by the Lithuanians, Moldovans, and Turks.
Castle and center over the gorge in Kamenec Podolský
Kamenec Podolský, by the way, the partner city of Kutná Hora, is located in the vicinity of the canyon of the river Smotryč. The historic center sits on an oval rocky ridge, covered by gorges on all sides. The only access to the rock used to be along the narrow ridge that separated the two meanders of the river. Where the ridge opens onto the ridge, there is a castle probably built by the Lithuanians in the 14th century, which protects access to the city. He also had a defensive function on the Polish-Lithuanian Union border, which he protected from the Cossacks, Turks and Tatars.
Bakhchisarai Palace of the Crimean Khan
Pushkin’s Bakhchisaray Fountain deals with the Fountain of Tears in a 16th-century palace, which housed the Crimean khans. They were the rulers of the Crimean Tatar state, which emerged after the collapse of the aforementioned Golden Horde Empire and existed in 1441-1783. One of the most famous Muslim palaces in Europe was built by Ottoman, Persian and Italian architects.
Odessa center with opera house
The Odessa region has a long history, but the city itself is just over 200 years old. After the victory in the Russo-Turkish War, it was founded in 1794 by Empress Catherine II. Big. The multicultural city with a port is attractive for its comprehensive construction, mostly from the 19th century in a mix of French and Italian-inspired styles.
The most impressive monuments include the monumental Potemkin Stairs and the neo-Renaissance National Opera and Ballet Theatre. The authors are renowned Viennese architects Fellner and Helmer, who also designed the Grandhotel Pupp and Imperial Spa in Karlovy Vary, as well as several Czech theatres, including the State Opera in Prague and the Mahen Theater in Brno.
Derzprom constructivists in Kharkov
The great semicircular constructivist complex Děržprom cannot be overlooked in the Kharkov central record. The name of this thirteen-story modernist building from 1928 can be translated as Industrial Palace.
Architects Sergei Serafimov, Mark Felger and Samuil Kravec designed it as a symmetrical and vertically oriented structure. Instead, they insert two horizontal bridges, which are the entrance gates to Merdeka Square.
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